Gopala-Campu (by Srila Jiva Goswami)
First Chapter Sri Goloka-rupa-nirupana
Description of Sri Goloka
1. 0 Sri Krsna, 0 Sri Krsna Caitanya, 0 Lord accompanied by Srila Rupa Goswami and Srila Sanatana Goswami. 0 Lord attained by Srila Gopal Bhatta Goswami and Srila Raghunatha dasa Goswami, 0 Lord dear to the residents of Vraja, please protect me!
2. With a happy heart I have written this verse. Now I will explain it. With is that explanation. This verse means: Step by step I meditate on my worshipable Supreme Lord (istadeva), His devotees, and certain specific devotees. This verse has three meanings. I will begin by explaining the first meaning. This verse is in the anustup meter. The first word is prefaced by "Sri" (glorious). Although the other words are not prefaced by "Sri" , the "Sri" in the first word should be assumed to apply to the other words. Explanation of the Mangala carana
3. In this verse "Sri Krsna" means, "0 greatest of all, 0 Lord named Sri Krsna." "Sri Krsna Caitanya" means "0 Lord glorious with all auspiciousness." "Sasanathana" means "accompanied by glorious Sri Sanatana Goswami". 'Rupaka" means "0 great saint named Rupa Goswami, 0 great saint whose feet I place on my head." "Gopala" means, "0 Sri Gopala Bhatta Goswami rich in learning and saintliness." "Raghunatha" means "0 Raghunatha dasa Goswami". "Aptavraja" means "0 devotee famous in Vraja for your great and perfect devotion, " or it may mean "Apta" means "0 saint like an ornament decorating the ears of the devotees", or it may also mean "0 leader of the devotees headed by Sri Bhugarbha Goswami." "Vallabha" means "0 Sri Vallabha, 0 my saintly father of whose feet I take shelter." Or, "Raghunathapta-vraja-vallabha" may mean "0 you who are dear to the followers of Sri Raghunatha." "Pahi mam" means "By giving me the shade of your lotus feet, please protect me."
4. Now I will explain the second meaning of this verse. In this verse the word "Sri" means "Radha". She is called Sri because She is the first of all goddesses of fortune, as will be proved later in this book. The word following "Sri" is "Krsna", which is the name of Nanda's son, the secret Supreme Personality of Godhead. Thus the words "Sri-Krsna" mean "Krsna, who is accompanied by His internal potency named Radha." The derivation of the word Krsna is given in these words (Mahabharata, Udyoga-parva 71.4): krsir bhu-vacakah sabdo nas ca nirvrti-vacakah tayor aikyam param brahma krsna ity abhidhiyate "The word 'krs' is the attractive feature of the Lord's existence, and 'na' means spiritual pleasure.
When the verb 'krs' is added to the affix 'na', it become Krsna which indicates the Absolute Truth." This verse indicates how the two syllables "krs" and "na" are joined to make the name Krsna. The word "bhu-vacakah" here refers to the way the verb "bhu" is thus changed into the noun "bhava"(being) by the agency of the kvip-pratyaya affix. As the verb "bhu" is thus changed to become "bhava" so the verb "krs" to attract becomes "akarsana" (attraction). Thus "krs" means "He who attracts the hearts of others." The words "tayor aikyam," mean "As two lovers join, so the two syllables "krs" and "na" (bliss) join. When united in this way they create the meaning "all-attractive bliss". "
The words "param brahma" are explained in these famous words: naraktri param brahma "The Supreme Personality of Godhead has a humanlike form." The two syllables "krs" and "na" thus combine to become the name of Nanda's son. The words "ity abhidhiyate" mean "the power of the word is thus revealed." The Lord's nature is also described in the name "Caitanya", which means "all - pervading".
The word "Rupaka" means "0 Lord whose form is the shelter of all" or it may also mean "0 Lord understood by the wise saints." The Lord's form is described in these words of Sri Gopala-tapani Upanisad: sac-cid-ananda-rupaya krsnayaklista-karine "I offer my respectful obeisances to Lord Krsna, who rescues the devotees from all distress, and whose form is eternal and full of knowledge and bliss." The Lord's form is also described in these words from Brahma's prayers in SrimadBhagavatam (10.14.22): tvayy eva nitya-sukha-bodha-tanav anante "0 Lord, Your body is eternal and full of bliss and knowledge."
The word "sa-sanatana-rupaka" means "0 Lord on whose form the devotees always (sanatana) gaze (rupaka), 0 Lord who always appear before the devotees, 0 Lord who appear before the devotees whose only treasure is devotion for You they keep in their hearts." Among the words "gopala raghunathapta vraja-vallabha" the word "gopala raghunathapta" means "0 Lord who are attained (apta) by the leaders (natha) of the small boys (raghu) that protect the cows (gopala)."
The word "apta-vraja-vallabha" means "0 Lord dear to the glorious cowherd people of Vraja." "Gopala-raghunatha" may also be interpreted to mean, "0 Lord who are the master (natha) the gopas (gopala) worship and yearn to attain (raghu)." In the Amara-kosa Dictionary these definitions of the word "raghu" are given: trisv iste 'lpe laghuh "The word 'raghu' may mean 'three', 'desired', 'worshipped', or 'small'."
Following these three different meanings one may accept many different interpretations of the vocative case word "gopala-raghunathapta," such as dear to Your multitude (vraja) of kinsmen (apta)." Implied in that interpretation is the thought, "0 Lord, Your glory is never perceived by outsiders." Krsna" the word "Sri" means "Sri Radha, the best of the Lord's beloveds".
Krsna means "Krsna who enjoys charming pastimes with Her." "Krsna-Caitanya" means "0 bhakta-avatara (the Lord's incarnation as a devotee) named Krsna-Caitanya" and "0 same Supreme Personality of Godhead who descended to this world." "Sasanatana-rupaka" means "0 Lord who stays with Your two devotees Srila Rupa Gosvami and Srila Sanatan Gosvami." "Gopala-raghunathapta" means "0 lord attained by Your devotees Gopala Bhatta Gosvami and Raghunatha dasa Gosvami." "Vraja-vallabha" means "0 lord always dear to the residents of Vraja." "Pahi mam" means "Please protect me." About This Book The word "apta-vraja-vallabha" may also be interpreted to mean "0 Lord 5. Now I will explain the third meaning of this verse. In the word "Sri- 6. Now that the mangalacarana is explained, the purpose of this book is explained in the following words.
The nectar conclusions I collected in the book Krsna-sandarbha are now tasted by the tongue of the poet's intelligence. souls will see is like a jewel set in gold. (uttara). Each of these campus is divided in three parts. I pray the saintly devotees may, as they wish, place their intelligence on these campus. devotees. disappeared from this world, the people of Gokula are even now present before the great souls. The Book Begins 7.
I am the author of this poem. I am its heart. This book is two campus, a first campu (purva) and a concluding campu. I pray this book named Gopala-campu will please Lord Krsna and His devotees. The glorious forest named Vrndavana begins a great auspiciousness to the earth goddess. This forest has the power to deliver all living beings in all the worlds. The mere touch of its purifying breeze washes away all troubles. That touch opens the bolt on the door in the prison of the three vargas (economic development, sense gratification, and material piety) and it carries away the fragrance of impersonal liberation.
With its great glories it unties the bonds of impersonal liberation. Although in other places the Supreme Personality of Godhead does not easily give the gift of devotional service, in the land of Vrndavana He easily gives it always. In his heart the demigod Brahma yearned to attain even a lowly birth in Vrndavana. He thought his contact with Vrndavana was the beginning of his own glorious good fortune. The ways of Vrndavan are very mysterious.
They are like the poetic ornament virodha-alankara, where what seems a contradiction is resolved in the end. Even if their authors lack poetic skill, poems about Vrndavana are glorious. That is because in those poems is an awareness of what is truly important and glorious. To help the people of this world, blissful Lord Krsna, the son of Nanda, descends again and again to the realm of Vrndavana. In this way a great festival of bliss always fills Vrndavana.
Srila Sukadeva Gosvami says Vrndavana is filled with wonderful bliss (Srimad Bhagavatam 10.11.36): vrndavanam govardhanam yamuna-pulinani ca viksyasid uttama priti rama-madhavayor nrpa "0 King Pariksit, when Rama and Krsna saw Vrndavana, Govardhana, and the banks of the river Yamuna, They both enjoyed great pleasure." 13. In Vrndavana is Govardhana Hill, which is glorified in these words: The Puranas call Lord Krsna by the name Gokulesvara (the master of Gokula).
This confirms the truth that Gokula is Lord Krsna's abode. Gokula is also the abode of the surabhi cows. Govardhana Hill is the shelter of Krsna and His cows. It is also said: Manasa-ganga and Govardhana are considered two different places in the realm of the three worlds. However, I think they are the same place. They are the same flood of love for Lord Krsna that has entered this world. It is also said: The two lakes Radha-kunda and Syama-kunda are the lover's meeting of Sri Sri Radha Krsna.
I think the sweet fragrances at those lakes are actually Sri Sri RadhaKrsna passionate embraces, the breezes are Radha-Krsna's passionate sighs and trembling, and the water seen in those lakes is Radha-Krsna's passionate love melted into nectar. About the Yamuna it is said: To one who simply bathes in her waters, the Yamuna gives the power to see Lord Krsna. To one who sees her, the Yamuna gives the sweetness of Lord Krsna's abode.
Here is a guess about Yamuna's true identity: Is the Yamuna a single drop of perspiration from Lord Krsna's body? Is the Yamuna love for Lord Krsna, love that has assumed the form of a dark river? The Yamuna's banks manifest great bliss and love: Gazing on the Yamuna's shore, the wise devotees have a vision of Lord Krsna's nectar rasa-dance pastimes.
Did the Yamuna sprinkle on her shores a divine elixir in the form of grains of sand? A banyan tree makes our hearts tremble: How can I describe the love a certain banyan tree feels for Lord Krsna? When Lord Krsna disappeared from this world, that tree thought, 'Let Govardhana Hill and the other places stay in this world in their partial expansions. I have no power to stay.' Then that tree also disappeared from this world.
Ah! Look at the deep love Vrndavan forest feels: Sometimes Lord Krsna's forest becomes stunned like an motionless mountain. Sometimes that forest trembles, its leaves and petals moving. Suddenly pushing out many new sprouts, that forest sometimes stands with the hairs of its body erect in ecstasy.
Why would Lord Krsna and His multitude (vraja) of associates not wish to appear in that land of Vrndavan? We see Their appearance in Vrndavana as very appropriate. Some pundits say the land of Vraja is named for the multitudes (vraja) of the Lords associates. In Srimad-Bhagavatam (10.5.18) it is said: "0 Maharaja Pariksit, the home of Nanda Maharaja is eternally the abode of the Supreme Personality of Godhead and His transcendental qualities and is therefore always naturally endowed with the opulence of all wealth.
Yet beginning from Lord Krsna's appearance there, it became the place for the pastimes of the goddess of fortune." 23. Following the Padma Purana's descriptions of the Lord's advent in this world, I will soon describe the Lord's entrance, kalpa after kalpa, into the land of Vrndavana, a delightful, beautiful, opulent land where the Lord killed many crooked demons with dangerous fangs. Because it is never touched by the material bodies or minds of the residents of the material world, because it is filled with kadamba trees and many other kinds of glorious trees and plants elaborately described in Varaha Purana and other scriptures, and because within its borders Lord Krsna enjoys many eternal nectar pastimes with Balarama, the gopas, and the surabhi cows, pastimes elaborate descriptions of which may be heard in Skanda Purana and other scriptures, it should be understood that the glory and beauty of Vrndavana has no limit.
Indeed, Vrndavana is outside the realm of the material world. Vrndavana is described in these words by Lord Krsna Himself in these words from the Gautamiya Tantra: "Vrndavana is My delightful spiritual abode. When they die, the cows, birds, deer, animals, human beings, and demigods who reside in Vrndavana go to My eternal spiritual abode." "Many gopi girls also reside here in Vrndavana. Great yoginis, they eternally serve Me with devotion."
"This forty mile forest of Vrndavan is My own transcendental form. Flowing with nectar, the Yamuna is the transcendental Susumna-cakra." "Manifesting spiritual forms, the demigods and sages stay in this abode of Vrndavana. I, the master of all the demigods, never leave this forest." "Yuga after yuga I appear in this abode, and then again I disappear. Material eyes have no power to see this glorious and delightful world of Vrndavana."
The realm of Gokula, which is full of all glories and opulences, which, as we will describe later in this book by following the descriptions in Srimad Bhagavatam, is the place where the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is an ocean of mercy, after leaving His ocean abode, entered, and which is Lord Krsna's own abode and the abode of His cowherd people; And which is the place where, by entering and then leaving the waters of delightful Brahma Lake, and by revealing His Vaikuntha opulences to Akrura, and by accepting the prayers of the Vedas Personified, Lord Krsna revealed the truth of His human like pastimes in Vrndavana and filled His associates with wonder; And where even now the wise devotees take shelter and directly see the Supreme Lord's pastimes; And where, according to Hari-vamsa's description of Govindabhiseka (Krsna's coronation), King Indra came to understand that Krsna is the all-pervading Supreme Personality of Godhead, and which, is including its forests of Vrndavana and the surrounding area.
Some say it is situated in the spiritual sky, far above the coverings of the material world, and where the devotees take shelter of the spiritual ground where Lord Krsna enjoyed many pastimes, and where Lord Krsna manifested His spiritual form, a form described in Brahma-samhita and other scriptures, is the abode where Lord Krsna enjoys many manifest and unmanifest pastimes, described in many scriptures.